International Communist Movement
The executive of Communist International is entitled to demand from the member parties the exclusion of individuals or entire groups that violate the discipline of the international movement. It also has the power to exclude from the Communist International any party that acts in violation of the resolutions of the World Congress.
From the Statute of Communist International, adopted at its 2nd Congress on the 4th of August 1919
The Bolsheviks never gave up on their idea of spreading communism. They believed in a world revolution and expected it at any time, whether during World War I or shortly after. At the same time, they relied mainly on a revolution in Germany. Communist parties began emerging in Europe around this time, fighting against the Social Democrats. In the years 1919-1943 the Communist International (Comintern) existed and was based in Moscow. It bound its members with 21 points, which in terms of structure and activity subordinated them to Soviet interests and significantly limited intra-party democracy. The Communist party of Czechoslovakia was also a member. After World War II, Comintern was followed by the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers’ Parties (Cominform), which existed during the years 1947-1958. Cominform became an instrument of Soviet politics, and was used in the summer of 1948 in a dispute with Tito’s Yugoslavia.
The states of the Soviet bloc were subordinated to Moscow and also controlled through an economic organization called the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (1949-1991) and, from a military point of view, by the Warsaw Pact (1955-1991). In addition to aggressive plans, the military pact eventually destroyed the expression of defiance within the Soviet bloc in August 1968 in Czechoslovakia. In previous years, Soviet tanks also “solved” problems in the GDR (1953) and Hungary (1956). In December 1981, the Polish Communists suppressed the Independent Self-Governing Trade Union movement Solidarity.
Parade in Vladivostok with portraits of the founders of Marxism and Bolshevik Russia. On the right is a portrait of Leon Trotsky, who was later deported from the Soviet Union and assassinated in Mexico at the behest of Stalin, in the 1920s (ČTK / photo: Mary Evans)
Footage from the meetings of the member states of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, Yugoslavia and the KLDR in the Černínsky Palace, June the 5th, 1973 (ČTK/ photo Jiří Karas)
Soviet T-34 tank destroyed by Hungarian insurgents in Budapest, 1956 (Wikimedia)
Soviet tank in front of the Czechoslovak Commercial Bank building on August 21, 1968 (ABS)
Members of the Political Secretariat of Communist International in 1935. Standing from left Otto Ville Kuusinen, Dmitry Manuilsky, Klement Gottwald, Wilhelm Pieck, sitting from left Georgi Dimitrov, Palmiro Togliatti, Wilhelm Florin (Klement Gottwald 1896-1953)