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Formation Party

It is enough for us to look among ourselves and compare our own beliefs about communism, in order for each of us to confirm that the transition to communism was a gradual process for everyone, and not in any way a leap.

From a speech by Bohumír Šmeral at the founding congress of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (15th of May, 1921)

From a speech by Bohumír Šmeral at the founding congress of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (15th of May, 1921)
On the 14th – 16th of May 1921, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was established in the Municipal House in the Karlín district of Prague with the participation of 569 delegates. All communist organizations existing in the territory of the Czechoslovak Republic merged at the congress held at the turn of October and November 1921. The Communist Party was an anti-system party, fighting for the overthrow of the democratic administration and openly advocating the Soviet model. For this reason, it was not invited to the government during the period of First Republic. At the same time, however, it also was not banned. Up until 1929, it was a mass political party with a number of satellite organizations and associations. Most social democrats joined the Communist Party after its formation. From a political point of view, it was a totalitarian party that claimed uniqueness, was built on the principle of leadership and its structure had a pyramid like character.
Until 1929, the leadership of the Communist Party was passed between several chairmen and general secretaries. In 1921 and 1922, the chairman of the Communist Party was the senator and mayor of Kobylisy Václav Šturc (1858-1939), who in 1927 ran in the presidential election against Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. In 1923 and 1924, Alois Muna (1886-1943), the member of parliament for Kladno, was chairman of the party. The former legionary joined the Bolsheviks in Russia and was entrusted by Lenin with the task of carrying out a revolution in Czechoslovakia. In the spring of 1929 he was thrown out of the communist party. Bohumil Jílek (1892-1963), a member of parliament, held the position of Secretary General in 1921-1922 and 1925-1929. After the 5th congress of the Communist party he was also removed from the organisation

Národní dům v Kaizlových sadech v Praze -Karlíně, kde se konal 14.května 1921 I.ustavující sjezd KSČ

Municipal House in Karlín, where on 14th -16th of May 1921, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was established (ČTK / photo: Rostislav Novák)

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Delegates of the Constituent Congress of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (On the establishment and foundation of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia)

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Cover of a pamphlet containing the famous parliamentary speech of Klement Gottwald on December 21st, 1929 (Klement Gottwald 1896-1953)

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The celebration of the anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party was an important party ritual The first day cover with postage stamps and a rubber stamp was issued in 1951 (archive of Petr Blažek)